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Propolis: natural ingredient of Zetastop

The propolis consists essentially of a mixture of compounds of aromatic nature and enriched by numerous phenolic substances very heterogeneous among them such as fatty acids, terpenes, amino acids, vitamins and mineral salts. Among the many components of propolis the group of polyphenols or flavonoids is definitely the most interesting fraction and studied for its properties.

Flavonoids are plant pigments similar to the function of anthocyanins in plants is still poorly known but probably play a dual action of protection and stimulation of fundamental metabolic functions such as, for example, breathing. Certainly flavones are found in large quantities on the gems of the plants where they exert effective protection against parasitic adversity and the rigors of winter; protective effect that is further enhanced by the waxy-resinous coating of the same gems.

The peculiarity of the propolis, whose main source is made up of resinous materials collected by bees on the gems, lies in the wealth of propolis flavonoids which provide most of its antimicrobial properties.
According to some Soviet researchers about a third of the fraction of propolis soluble in ethyl alcohol is constituted by compounds of flavonoid nature and among these was identified galangin and Pinocembrin with bacteriostatic action and sacuranetine that has antifungal activity.

In addition to the flavonoids in propolis are found other substances of aromatic nature (phenols, phenol acids, alcohols and aldehydes with aromatic nucleus, etc.) That have strong antimicrobial properties as, for example, benzoic acid and ferulic acid that with much probability contribute to bacteriostatic and bactericidal action of propolis. Other compounds identified are certain esters of caffeic acid and xanterolo, all with antifungal activity.

In the past, the strong antibacterial and antifungal action was assigned to that 0.5% of essential oils present in propolis but today it has been proven as are precisely the flavonoids, in particular galangin (which is rich in propolis collected in deciduous forests) and Pinocembrin (mainly present in propolis originating from conifers) to ensure to the substance its valuable antimicrobial properties.

Propolis: natural ingredient of Zetastop

Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of propolis

Numerous experimentation have demonstrated both in vivo or in vitro the ability of propolis in alcohol solution at a concentration from 10 to 20% to inhibit the development of various Gram-positive bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Mycocter¡um tuberculosis, Bacillus alvei, B . riverbeds, B. larvae, B. subtilis and many salmonella).
These properties can be more or less evident depending on the presence in propolis of benzoic acid, ferulic acid, galangin and Pinocembrin whose antibacterial properties even at low concentrations have long been known.

Fungicidal properties of propolis

The based preparations of propolis have proved particularly active against Candida infections, Saccharomyces, and tricofili microspori can cause numerous parasitic diseases (fungal infection) in humans and animals. Such action would be due to the presence of caffeic acid, Pinocembrin, pinobaucsina and benzii-p-cumarolo. Propolis also performs fungicide action with regard to some fungi that attack the plant world.

Antivirals properties of the propolis

Propolis performs an action of inhibition against some types of herpes viruses such as the corona and about 10 types of viral infections. This property would be mainly due to the water-soluble fraction of propolis.

Cicatrizant properties of propolis

Since always the propolis was used in the form of unguent as a healing thanks to the remarkable capacity of stimulation of tissue regeneration in case of wounds and sores.

Immunostimulating properties of the propolis

The use of propolis would enhance the action of vaccines (such as against typhoid and paratyphoid) as evidenced by numerous studies carried out on calves.

Vasoprotective properties of propolis

Always thanks to the action of the flavonoids which constitute the so-called "P-factor", propolis would play an action of prevention of the permeability and capillary fragility.

Propolis: natural ingredient of Zetastop

Antioxidants and preservatives properties of propoli

The presence of phenols would allow the use of propolis also in the preservation of fats and foods in general in substitution of the chemical additives.
Addition to these properties pro-
polis taken internally, would improve the secretion of gastric juices; is diuretic and promotes the absorption of vitamin C. It acts as an anti-aging for the antioxidant effect and activating the enzymatic complexes.

Activities and bacteriostatic bactericidal

Numerous experiments have demonstrated in vitro and in vivo, the ability of propolis in hydroalcoholic solution at a concentration of 10-20% to inhibit the development of various bacterial strains: E. coli, Proteus vulgaris, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bacillus alvei, B. subtilis, numerous salmonella, staphylococci, Streptococcus, Cory-
nebacterium diphtheria, Klebsiella ozaenae.

The constituents most frequently implicated in the antimicrobial activity of propolis are: Essential oil, which may be obtained by steam distillation from crude propolis, flavonoids, in particular galangine, Pinocembrin, chrysin, the colorogenic acids, caffeic, Benzoic, Ferulic, cinnamic, which can be isolated and purified by HPLC.

The antimicrobial activity is related to the concentration of the active ingredients, which unfortunately is extremely variable, which is why it becomes important be able to standardize the commercial product. Interesting is also the synergistic effect of propolis and some antibiotics, such as tetracycline, neomycin, polymyxin, penicillin, streptomycin, biomicine, on cultures of Streptococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

The activity of propolis is linked both to a direct action on germs Both to the stimulus that it exerts on the processes of humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity. The immunostimulating action consists of an increase of the production of leukocytes polinuceati, gamma globulins, the thymic activity in general, in a potentiation of mesenchymal and in an activation of phagocytosis of macrophages, this appears due always to flavonoids.Zetastop: Composition (Propolis)

Propolis: natural ingredient of Zetastop

Antimycotic activity

The antifungal activity was due to the presence of Ac. Caffeic Pinocembrin, benzyl-p-Cumarolo according to others also galangina, Kempferolo, Quercetin and derivatives of Ac. Cinnamic acid.
Propolis has been particularly active against Candida (especially Candida albicans), Saccharomyces, Trichomonas, Tricophyton, microsporon. The action is essentially fungistatic and involves the surface layer of the skin.

Antiviral activity

According to research performed, propolis plays an inhibiting action in respect of 'Herpes simplex type 1 and 2, Corona virus and about ten types of viral infections (influenza A and B, parainfluenza 1, 2 and 3, adenovirus, respiratory virus synclinal and others).
The action appears to be due to a limitation of engagement and penetration of the virus into cells for interference of propolis with the viral neuraminidase. The activity is mainly due to flavonoids, in particular galangin, kempferolo, quercetin, but also caffeic acid and its esters (in particular the CAPE). Propolis has direct action against Herpes and Adenovirus, because it inhibits the growth and slows down its multiplication.

Local anesthetic activity

It has an action similar to that induced by novocaine and according to some authors greater of cocaine and proca-
ine, with synergistic effect when used with the latter. In contrast to morphine, propolis does not reduce the pain by topical application of heat, in alcoholic solution is effective against the pain of chemical origin, but not against that of thermal origin and such action is not related to the activation of the opioid system and / or the release of opioid substances.

Hydroalcoholic extracts have a good local anesthetic effect, peripherally acting on the mucous membranes of the eye greater than that produced by procaine. The anesthesia is surface with little penetration power and is very useful in the dental field, especially after tooth extractions, teeth cleanings, when the gums are irritated.

Healing activity restorative

It stimulates the regeneration of tissues in the case of wounds or sores (using cream and ointments containing propolis), favors the absorption of vitamin C, important for the synthesis of collagen.