Propolis

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Propolis: natural ingredient of Robur

Composition and characteristics of propolis

The list of active principles observed in propolis increases continuously since the analyzes are still in full swing. The propolis is constituted from 10 to 70% of resins from 14 to 40% of waxes of vegetable nature, with different solubility, from beeswax, from 2 to 10% of volatile oils (essential), by compounds usually characterized from the participation of some specific flavors, from 5% of pollen and 3-25% of insoluble components.
There are also a 5% of fatty acids (mainly myristic acid), the abietic acid and pimaric acid. The amino acids, measured in number varying from 16 to 24 have significant representatives as pyroglutamic acid, arginine and proline.

It can be deduced that their presence in propolis is due to the pollen and the salivary secretions of bees. Present in propolis are also sugars (monosaccharides and polysac-
charides), glycosides, enzymes, bioflavonoids (flavones, flavonols and flavonones), the betulene, vanilla and the ’iso vanillin, terpenes, tannins. The vitamins are represented by B1, B2, B6, C, E, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid and vitamin A.

The flavonoids and phenolic acid esters are known for being responsible for the activities of propolis. It is demonstrated that the pharmacological properties of propolis are due to the synergy among all its constituents as according to nature and not proportionate to the individual component isolated.

The mineral substances are present in quantities that vary from 0.51 to 0.86 and those most representatives are sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), barium (Ba ), boron (B) (trace), strontium (Sr), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), aluminum (Al), silicon (Si), selenium (Se) (traces ), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), titanium (Ti), silver (Ag), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co) , molybdenum (Mo) and vanadium (V).

Studies on the components of propolis have been undertaken, especially in eastern Germany. E. Schneidewind, J. Metzner and their colleagues at the University of Halle you are interested in, among other things, of the pinocembrin (5,7-diidrossiflavanone) finding that this substance is very active against parasitic fungi. Equally esters of caffeic acid exhibit similar properties.

In propolis were found before unknown substances, such as pectolinarisenina (quercetin-3, 3-dimethyl) while others, such as the salansina, the ramnocitrina, the sacuranetina, p-benzyl ester of the acid and the pinobancsina coumarin-3-acetate), has recently proven the relevance to the spectrum of the active principles with antibiotic activity.