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Mate: ingredient of Reductup Man

Mate or Ilex paraguariensis: leaves E.S. in Reductup Man titled to 4% caffeine
Principal characteristics
  • Family: Aquifoliaceae
  • Genre: Ilex
  • Species: Paraguaiensis
  • Common Names: Yerba Mate, Mate, Erva Mate, Paraguay Cayi, Paraguay Tea, South American Holly
  • Properties/Actions: on the Central Nervous System, analettic, antioxidants, appetizing, astringent, depurative, diuretic, glicogenolitic, immunostimulants, lipolytic, purgative, stimulant, stomachic, diaphoretic, tonic
  • Phytochemistry: 2,5-xylenol, 4-acidooxolaurico, 5-or-caffeolquinico acid, alpha-amirina, ash, beta-amirina, butyric acid, caffeine, caffetannini, chlorogenic acid, chlorophyll, choline, fibers, inositol, isobutyric acid, isocapronico acid, acid isovalerianic, neoclorogenico acid, nicotinic acid, nitric acid, pantothenic acid, protein, pyridoxine, resins, resinic acid, riboflavin, rutin, stearic acid, tannins, theobromine, theophylline, trigonelline, ursolic acid, vanillin.

The mate is the subject of a specific German study that lists all its uses, against the physical and mental effort and the analeptics results, diuretics, positive inotropic and chronotropic, lipolytic and glycogen. It has been used in medicine as a diuretic, tonic and neurotonic for the central nervous system. Another typical use is as a detoxifier of toxins to stimulate the excretion of waste.

The mate can be considered a complete toning and it tends to balance many systems of the body without overstimulate anyone. The restorative effect of mate on the human body indulges sleep and reduces fatigue. It is used to moderate the appetite, tone your body and strengthen muscle tissue.
In Europe, the mate is used to reduce body weight, being a perfect remedy which decreases the weight naturally and without the stress of hunger and thirst.

The mate is also recommended for arthritis, headaches, hemorrhoids, fluid retention, obesity, fatigue, stress, constipation, allergies and allergic rhinitis since cleans the blood, strengthens the nervous system it stimulates mind, slows aging, controls the appetite, stimulates the formation of cortisone and seems to have the ability to enhance the healing of other herbs.

The primary mate chemical mixture consists from 0.3 to 2% caffeine, theobromine, theophylline, saponins and 10% chlorogenic acid. In mate were also discovered sterols, which are similar to ergosterol and cholesterol. It is also, moreover, a great source of minerals which have been found in the leaves over 15 amino acids.
The mate is potentially a mediator antidiabetic moderating the hyperphagia and polydipsia. The antioxidant qualities, explicitly proven by two clinical studies, indicate another condition of these leaves.

The current clinical interest has focused its studies on a well-known saponins, isolated by researchers always in mate leaves. Saponins are a group phytochemical with important pharmacological properties, including those of neurotonic of the immune system.
In addition to the common nutrients agents, is also present in the mate a substance that forms part of a group very qualified said xanthine. Although only small amounts of xanthine in mate is in force, they have strongly attracted the interest of researchers. The major xanthine present in the mate was called mateina.

Although the chemical structure of xanthines is similar, each has distinctive features specific. Researchers at the Free Hygienic Institute of Hamburg ruled that although there is caffeine in mate, the amount is so small that it would take 100 tea bags of mate in a cup of water to about 100 grams. to be related to the effect of caffeine in one cup of 100 gr. of coffee. It is for this simple reason inferred that the active principle of the mate is not in the caffeine.

There is only one requirement that seems to be common to all the xanthines and that is the smooth muscle relaxation. It is for this reason that, with the exclusion of the coffee, where the outcomes distensive are reduced due to other side effects, the xanthines may be considered remarkable bronchodilators with clinical validity and therefore valid in the therapy of asthma.

The mateine seems to be endowed of the best quality in the category of xanthine because, like other xanthines, have the means to stimulate the central nervous system, but unlike all the other presents no dependence on forcing a daily usage.
In addition, unlike the caffeine, favors and does not make difficult to sleep. It is a bland diuretic like many xanthines and releases the peripheral blood vessels by balancing blood pressure. Potentiates the psychomotor activity without releasing the characteristic secondary effect of depressive type belonging to the xanthine.
Clinical studies seem to document that subjects with undoubtedly intolerance to caffeine can take mate without adverse reactions.

Gastrointestinal activity

The intestine is probably the major part of the body to gain benefit from the possibility of using the mate. The results reported in the literature vary from a rapid improvement of digestion to the ability to repair gastrointestinal tissue deteriorated or suffering.

Results on the nervous system

More than other xanthine alkaloids, the mate has the ability to enhance the lucidity and the acuteness intellectual cognitive without giving any secondary consequence as irritability or restlessness. It seems to operate as a tonic, stimulating the nervous system when depressed or calming too excited weather.
It has been observed mood improvement after taking a mate but this is presumably mediated effect caused by the stimulus energetic. One of the really positive aspects of mate is that the sequence does not disturb sleep - wake as it has the propensity to balance them, encouraging greater availability of REM sleep, where necessary or prolonging the duration of the state of delta sleep and the deep sleep.

Cardiovascular activity

The mate has proven to increase oxygen supply to the heart and especially in moments of fatigue or physical activity. His results seem to imply its metabolic capacity to last for aerobic glycolysis (reduction of carbohydrates) during exercise for longer periods of time than usual. At this follows an expansion of the amount of calories burned, an increase in efficiency of the heart muscle and a slowdown in the anaerobic glycolysis, leading to a lower formation of lactic acid during exercise. Worthy of note are also the news that often have the mate for lowering blood pressure.

Results on the immune system

It is believed that the material can stimulate natural resistance to disease. This action may manifest through a successful nutritional and invigorating of the individual patient. Sometimes the intake of mate is capable of speeding up the time of rehabilitation, although the exact procedures for this activity is currently the subject of studies.

The scientific research

Studies conducted by major institutions such as the Pasteur Institute in Paris, documenting that mate contains in itself almost all the essential vitamins for good nutrition as well as being a strong antioxidant and metabolic detoxifying. Thanks to the industriousness to 11x polyphenols, prevents burn-out of cells, plays antidepressant activity, energizing and tonic natural.
Thanks to a substance similar to caffeinecalled mateine, facilitates concentration and brain activity and can be an alternative to coffee, but without any negative consequences.

Among the main active ingredients are present in mate xanthines (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline), saponins and 10% of chlorogenic acid. Are also present similar to sterols ergosterol and cholesterol, and identified several new saponins in the leaf called metasaponine.
The saponins are chemical constituents with valences as pharmacological activity of the immune neuro tonic system recently demonstrated by research. In addition, the leaf material is a great source of vitamins, minerals and amino acids.


Caffeine (also called 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), is an alkaloid of the group of purine. It is found in tea (up to 4-5%), coffee (about 3%) in the leaves of mate, kola nuts, seeds of guarana and in small quantities in cocoa.
It is a white crystalline powder with no odor and bitter taste that sublimes easily and is very soluble in hot water. A cup of coffee contains about 100 mg. of caffeine.

It is mainly produced by pulling from the dust of tea and coffee by boiling in water with the participation of magnesium oxide, which causes the precipitation of tannins and some coloring substances.
The crude caffeine decomposes into followed by recrystallization from hot water, after filtration and processing with decolorizing carbon. is obtained for semi-synthetic methylation of theobromine extracted from cocoa.

The use of caffeine in the treatment of the problem of fat is the result of larger studies done on the modulation systems of the accumulation of fat at the level of the adipocytes in the adipose tissue.
It was noted that the lipolysis, namely the destruction of the fat that begins with the breakdown of triglycerides to glycerol and fatty acids, is partly regulated by the nervous system through an action on the adrenergic receptors, ß and a2 present on the surface of the adipose cell.

Triglycerides glycerol fatty acids

Studies in vitro confirm that a mediator that activates ß-adrenergic receptors promotes lipolysis and fat cell reduction, whereas an agent that activates the a2-adrenergic receptors prevents lipolysis.
Increase the concentration of agonists (stimulators) ß-adrenergic agonists or antagonists (inhibitors) a2-adrenergic receptors on the area of the adipose cell is a method for promoting lipolysis and decrease the subcutaneous fat.

The ß-adrenergic stimulators better known are: caffeine, theobromine, theophylline, teofillinacetico acid, aminophylline and epinephrine.
These limiting the activity of the enzyme phosphodiesterase, which degrades cAMP to 5 ’AMP inactive, stabilizing cAMP (cAMP is the second messenger in signal transduction pathways initiated by receptor associated).
Is thus reached a concentration of cAMP in activating the enzyme appropriate triglyceride lipase, which accelerates the formation of free fatty acids from triglycerides.

Stimulation of lipolysis

The mobilization of triglycerides by xanthines facilitates the local processing of excess lipid reserves of free fatty acids, which are eliminated by the lymphatic system.

In 1999, Swiss researchers conducted a study that demonstrated how the mate was able be support in weight reduction as a result of thermogenic found in healthy subjects, symptomatic of a growing proportion of fat burned as energy.
Other clinical studies have established that the mate leaf is capable of block the lipoxygenase, enzyme activity involved in infections and inflammatory disorders.

In addition, some extracts of mate demonstrated relaxing activity on the soft muscle tissue and increase the flow of bile and to limit the vasoconstriction.
A recent U.S. Patent (2002), shows that the mate has the capacity to block, in vitro, monoaminoosidasi (MAO) of 40-50% and it is argued that the mate could be helpful in relieving various disorders such as depression, disorders’ attention and concentration, humor and emotional disorders, Parkinson’s disease, extrapyramidal disorders, hypertension, excessive use of substances, food disorders, withdrawal symptoms and smoking cessation.

Several studies have exhibited evidence of a significant antioxidant activity of mate. Its high antioxidant capacity have been related to urges assimilation of the antioxidants elements existing in the leaves. The mate leaf possesses, in fact, a verified inhibitory activity of lipid peroxidation and in particular the oxidation of LDL (low density lipoprotein), which are believed to be the artificer application to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

A further in vitro study has shown that mate limits the formation of AGEs (essential fatty acids) implicated in the development of complications of diabetes, with a result comparable to that of two medicines of AGE (essential fatty acids) inhibitors themselves.
But the mate has a remarkable tradition of use in the world. In Europe it is taken for weight loss, against the physical and mental fatigue, nervous depression against, for nerve pain, for migraines psychogenetic and tear.

The mate use has become very popular in Germany as an aid in weight loss, in addition to being the subject of a specific study which describes the approved uses were against physical and mental fatigue.
In France, the use of mate has been approved as a therapy for fatigue due to tiredness or scarcity of energy as well as support programs for weight loss and as a diuretic.

To use the power of mate also appear in the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia which also is indicated for the treatment of fatigue due to wear, for weight loss and headaches.

In the U.S., Dr. James Balch recommends mate against arthritis, headaches, fluid retention, obesity, fatigue, stress, constipation, allergies and hay fever also asserting that the plant purifies the blood, reinforces the nervous system, slows aging, stimulates the mind, controls appetite, stimulates the formation of cortisone and is expected to be able to increase the curative qualities of other herbs.
Today, the mate is cultivated in India and Indian Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia indicates the treatment of headaches psychogenetic, nervous depression, rheumatic pains and fatigue.