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Cocoa: natural ingredient of Reductup Man

Cacao (Theobroma cocoa): seeds E.S in Reductup Man standardized to 6% theobromine

The cocoa plant is a South American plant in which fruits are present, among other things, purine alkaloids including theobromine (0.5-2.7%) and caffeine (0.7% approximately). The activity of theobromine is similar to that of caffeine as this also has a basis metilxantinica useful for improving psychomotor performance and to improve the tone of humor, increase the plasma concentrations of dopamine and serotonin.

As for caffeine, its activity is accomplished particularly at the level of the enzyme phosphodiesterase, whose inhibition leads to more prolonged half-life of cyclic AMP.
Some studies have reported that many people in a state of depression using the chocolate to make the best mood. It has recently been discovered that the flavonoids present in cocoa beans are rich in antioxidants and cardioprotective able to prevent platelet aggregation and to stimulate the nitric oxide synthase, thus defending the organism from cerebrovascular diseases such as stroke, hemorrhage and thrombosis.

Main components of the cocoa

The main components of cocoa are purine alkaloids (theobromine and caffeine), polyphenols and tannins (including oligomers proantocianidinici), biogenic amines (phenethylamine, slap and tryptamine, serotonin).

Main activities of cocoa

The main activities of cocoa are: stimulant, nervine tonic, antioxidant, antiradical, energizing, invigorating, diuretic.

Therapeutic use of Cocoa

Cocoa has the following therapeutic uses: asthenia, physical and mental performance, emotional eating, preventing cardiovascular disease. Pharmacological activity of cocoa.

Pharmacological activity of cocoa

The scientific name Theobroma cacao has to do with a greek word meaning “Food of the Gods” and the name given to the plant from the Aztecs: cacahuatl. The renewed interest for the Cocoa moved from the role only hedonistic-functional to that of food phytotherapy preparation, due to the presence of some active ingredients of the plant complex.

The cocoa beans are a natural source of theobromine and caffeine, alkaloids belonging to a specific group of neuro tonic active at the level of the nervous system and called methylxanthines. They have a positive effect on mental application, the psychophysical readiness, muscle tone and with favorable results on adipose lipolytic tissue.

Caffeine also provides an increase in thermogenesis, activity by which the energy liberated in the oxidation of nutrients is not imprisoned in the form of ATP but dispersed as heat and thereby increasing the energy consumption and facilitating the reduction of body weight.
Data received from experimental researches show that methylxanthines act as antagonists of the receptors’ adenosine. Similarly, fruit, vegetables and tea, cocoa beans are also a rich source of flavonoids who practice a remarkable effect of preventing against coronary heart disease.

The primary flavonoic fraction in Cocoa is represented by flavan-3-ols and oligomeric proanthocyanidins, which eliminate free radicals, blocking the cascade process and the anomalous aggregation of platelets that caused the composition of thrombi in blood vessels.
These substances would increase the presence of nitrogen oxide which promotes vasodilatation. Research conducted by Harvard University on individuals whose age was around 65 years, has shown that consumption of cocoa and chocolate reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Thanks to additional studies was also documented an activity of neutralization of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. The oligomers procyanidinic isolated from cocoa bean produce more effective antioxidant than epicatechin monomeric.
He was recently also identified a group of biogenic amine which is attributed the cause of this dependence on cocoa in some individuals and the effect resulting from rewarding ’use. At phenethylamine, for reciprocity to the central level similar to amphetamines, is credited the ability to pass hungry.

Another substance isolated is anandamide, whose name derives from the Sanskrit word ananda, which means happiness. Indeed, anandamide, seems to be able to stimulate sensory perceptions and inducing euphoria.
The cocoa extract may also be applicable as a invigorating, energizing and neurotonic in individuals who perform a moderate exercise, as it creates the necessary prerequisites for physical stamina and energy recovery after exercise.

The use of cocoa is therefore recommended in a field or prophylactic in cardiovascular disease where the requirements of antioxidants should be reinforced as, for example, the sporting activity.
Are not known side effects. The presence of tannins can induce constipation in case of using abundant and the presence of methylxanthines can determine cardiac excitability. Do not use in pregnancy.

The Theobromine

The mechanism through the theobromine stimulates lipolysis favoring the reduction of the fat mass is its blocking activity of an enzyme called phosphodiesterase. This compound proteic, normally limits the activity of cAMP (cyclic Adenosine monophosphate) which in turn increases lipolysis in adipose cells.

Theobromine, blocking phosphodiesterase, prolongs the action of cAMP that, consequently, enhances the activity destructive on fats which are agglomerated in the tissue.
Theobromine, which is also rich the cocoa, is a methylxanthine that improves the nervous tone and mood, decreases the response time to nerve impulses, stimulates smooth muscle, renal function (diuresis water retention) and improves muscle function and fatigue, also acting positively on bronchial dilation.

Theobromine seems to stimulate lipolysis by blocking activity on the enzyme called phosphodiesterase. This enzyme blocks the activity of cAMP-cyclic (cyclic Adenosine monophosphate) which is useful instead to enhanced lipolysis in adipose cells. Stopping the phosphodiesterase action, is prolonged c-AMP, which consequently increases the destructive activity on fatty deposits.

Hypocolesterolemic property

Theobromine also seems to act on the level of free lipids in the blood and also on body weight. Eteng and Etarh have documented a quantity of 700 mg. / Kg. of pure theobromine significantly decreases the level of lipids and body weight of the rats even if has not yet been analyzed a connection between lipid levels, body weight and extracts of green coffee and cocoa, so significant as that observed after administration of pure theobromine.

These studies indicate that the green coffee and cocoa have some capacity to reduce cholesterol. It is known that theobromine is responsible for activation of the enzyme lipase that hydrolyzes triglycerides and releases free fatty acids and glycerol from adipose tissue to blood.

Anticarcinogenic properties

Research has documented the positive effect of theobromine on cancer. Theobromine prevents the appearance of cancer cells in the ovary. It is in fact included in the composition of the reagent solution of chemotherapy.

Stimulation of serotonin

Recent researches are trying to understand how the methylxanthines are among the main actors of the mood hormone stimulation said serotonin.