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The structure gland epiphysis
 
Until thirty years ago, most scholars believed that the pineal gland does not possess any job. Some people thought it was an heirloom of the evolution of the human race, which ultimately became outdated due to the transformation of our bodies.
 
All one could know about it was that its activities had to do with the color of certain animal skin, that mattered to complete sexual development process, which in some reptiles had the perfect shape of an eye and that Lastly, the birds would use as a navigation system or temporal calculation.
 
It was believed that the pineal gland had a transcendental value. Descartes (Renatus Cartesius, 1596-1650), the founder of rationalism and 'one of the fathers of the modern philosophical concept, he imagined that the pineal gland was the "seat of the soul."
 
In traditional Eastern philosophy and according to the Indians-Taoist teachings, it establishes the link between man and the universe and then implements a direct influence on the forma mentis and spiritual humanity.
 
In 1958 researchers A.B. Lerner and J.D. Houses found for the first time a strange substance generated by the pineal gland, which they called melatonin (from the Greek melas = black and Tosos = laboratory).
 
Since 1963 it has been documented that melatonin has an effect on the sexual activity of rats and later was classified as a hormone. For a small team of researchers, this discovery marked the beginning of an important and exciting path in an area which until now had been largely ignored.
 
The most important results of the studies on melatonin and its effects on the human organism to this day can be summarized as follows: the formation of melatonin in the pineal gland is conditioned by light. During the night, when it is dark, the accumulation of melatonin in the blood is almost ten times greater when compared with the day. In the course of the day, it is not found almost trace of melatonin in the blood because the melatonin produced during the nighttime hours and endeavored is absorbed by the body within a few hours.
 
This hormone plays an important role in the control of the circadian cycle as well as in the transformations of body cycles during 24 hours, in particolar way of the sleep cycle.
It was found that children have a melatonin rate increased blood if compared to with adults, and that the amount of melatonin in the blood is greatly reduced with age. For these reasons, some researchers initially thought that melatonin was involved in youth growing up and that later would lose its relevance.
 
It 'has been noticed that people suffering from neoplasms, chronically ill or people suffering from other diseases due to aging, such as Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease usually have very low levels of melatonin or even absent.
 
Melatonin has a significant role in sexual development processes and controlling sexual phases both in men than in women. In the animal realities ascertains the beginning and the end of the mating period by controlling the production of the respective sex hormones. Multiple experimentation has clearly demonstrated that the sexual behavior of rats could be often conditioned by the modification of the day-night cycle through the use of artificial light.
 
The pineal gland "the controller of all controllers"
 
Thanks to researchers all over the world, today we learned a lot more about the pineal gland and its extraordinary hormone called melatonin.
In thirty years of extensive studies on immunology, endocrinology and senescence scholars came across consistently in this particular organ and its secretions. Finally they reached the conclusion that they have found the "controller of all controllers".
 
The pineal gland regulates the entire apparatus of the endocrine glands during our entire existence, which in turn generates hormones that control all our bodily activities. As gland "clever," he does the right thing at the right time to check all the other glands in the body that affect the activities of each individual biological unity in our body. In this way regulates functions such as:
 
development and growth of the body
reproduction
control of body temperature
regulate function of the kidneys
cycle of the organism sleep
control of the immune apparatus
stress control (removal of substances that determine stress, such as corticosteroids created by the adrenal glands)
Defense of the cell's DNA against viral attacks or carcinogenic carriers,
destruction of free radicals - aggressive particles with an atom of free oxygen which can greatly damage the cell membranes and give rise to the development of tumors. We recognizes to melatonin of being one of the strongest antioxidants.
 
Realization of cellular efficiency and response of the energy flow throughout the entire organism, via the modification of the thyroid hormone T4 in the much more energetic hormone T3.
Melatonin is a hormone that flows from different conditions and therefore affects all the other parts of the body. Its main activity is to control the levels of all other hormones in the blood and maintain their stability (homeostasis) by helping them in their respective functions. A change in the proportion of melatonin also causes a change in the levels of other hormones.
 
A regular level of melatonin ensures that the immune system instantly finds and abolishes aggressive vectors, microbes or viruses. Being one of the most important antioxidants, melatonin is very effective for the neutralization of so-called free radicals that are responsible for the origin of carcinogenic cells. Melatonin, which can cross any barrier and penetrate into each cell, is the best known free radical destroyer.
 
 
Specific oncological studies have shown that melatonin can also support and optimize certain chemo-therapeutic medicines and at the same time reduce to some of their most adverse side effects which can sometimes be very harmful
The most significant result seems to be the discovery that the pineal gland controls the aging process, with melatonin as its agent, and thus represents what the researchers have pursued for generations: "The Clock of Aging".