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Adenosine is a neurotransmitter with inhibitory activity. We find it also indicated with the abbreviation P1 or as Purina-1. Its main action consists in communicating to the brain levels of oxidative
stress accumulated, that is, when we reach a state of fatigue or stress that requires a stop.
This neurotransmitter then communicates to the brain that it is essential to stop and more than communicate it as a warning, provides him with a strong message forcing him to take a break.
It is now undisputed that the adenosine include effects on sleep. Recent studies show that adenosine is a neurotransmitter that acts in the induction of sleep slow wave process (SWS - Slow-Wave Sleep).
Melatonin is assimilated in the body linked with adenosine; bond that does not have the interatomic force covalent (The covalent bond forms when two atoms in common bring a pair of electrons) metal ion but it is weaker. 
melatonin is conjugated to adenosine (nucleoside of rna, where the adenine acts as a nitrogenous base) by means of a mixing or lyophilization, this in order to ensure a better bioavailability of the medicament.

Melatonin is capable of forming a complex with adenosine. The complex is then stabilized by the glycine that contributes to the formation of hydrogen bridges. The formation of the complex causes a considerable variation with regard to the characteristics of the individual components: the complex is in fact completely water-soluble, at concentrations at which adenosine and melatonin alone plummet or even would melt.